931

APRIL 2003

HENCH AND LUETTICH

t

2

sin

f *U*s

sin

0.

U s cos

g cos

(A10)

x

y

y

x

M

ments of secondary currents in river bends. *Nature, *269, 504

With this transformation *M*s3 and *M*n5 are zero by def-

506.

inition (i.e., bottom friction acts entirely in the stream-

Black, K. P., and S. L. Gay, 1987: Eddy formation in unsteady flows.

wise direction, and Coriolis only in the normal direc-

tion). To complete the transformation, derivatives in the

Blanton, J. O., F. E. Werner, A. Kapolnai, B. O. Blanton, D. Knott,

and E. L. Wenner, 1999: Wind-generated transport of fictitious

passive larvae into shallow tidal estuaries. *Fish. Oceanogr., *8

rule:

(Suppl.), 210223.

s

n

c

Brown, C. A., G. A. Jackson, and D. A. Brooks, 2000: Particle trans-

sin

,

os

(A11)

port through a narrow tidal inlet due to tidal forcing and im-

x

sx

nx

s

n

plications for larval transport. *J. Geophys. Res., *105, 24 141

24 156.

s

n

s

cos

,

Carr, E. E., and N. C. Kraus, 2002: Federal inlets database. *Proc.*

in

(A12)

y

sy

ny

s

n

MS, Florida Shore and Beach Preservation Association, 119

where s/ x cos , s/ y sin , n/ x

sin , and

126.

n/ y cos from Fig. A1. The final relationship need-

Chadwick, D. B., and J. L. Largier, 1999a: The influence of tidal

range on the exchange between San Diego Bay and the ocean.

ed is / *s*

1/*R*s , where *R*s(*x, y, t*) is the streamwise

radius of curvature (cf. Gill 1982; Munson et al. 1994),

----, and ----, 1999b: Tidal exchange at the bay-ocean boundary.

with curvature to the left assumed positive. Expanding

Chant, R. J., and R. E. Wilson, 1997: Secondary circulation in a

the spatial derivatives in (A9) and (A10) with the chain

highly stratified estuary. *J. Geophys. Res., *102, 23 20723 215.

Chao, S.-Y., 1990: Tidal modulation of estuarine plumes. *J. Phys.*

fying yields the momentum equations in *s**n *coordinates

Churchill, J. H., J. O. Blanton, J. L. Hench, R. A. Luettich Jr., and

Us

Us

Cf U 2

Us

g

0,

F. E. Werner, 1999: Flood tide circulation near Beaufort Inlet,

(A13)

t

s

s

North Carolina: Implications for larval recruitment. *Estuaries,*

M

Cromwell, J. E., 1973: Barrier coast distribution: a worldwide survey.

U2

s

Ross, 407408.

f *U*s

g

0.

Crowder, L. B., and F. E. Werner, Eds., 1999: Fisheries oceanography

(A14)

t

n

of the estuarine-dependent fishes of the South Atlantic Bight:

M

An interdisciplinary synthesis of SABRE (South Atlantic Bight

Recruitment Experiment). *Fish. Oceanogr., *8 (Suppl. 2), 252 pp.

Fenster, M. R., and R. Dolan, 1996: Assessing the impact of tidal

(A similar procedure can be followed to obtain the *s*

inlets on adjacent barrier island shorelines. *J. Coastal Res., *12,

/*t*

294310.

Foreman, M. G. G., A. M. Baptista, and R. A. Walters, 1992: Tidal

Us H / *n*

0.) Note that once values of

model studies of particle trajectories around a shallow coastal

the *x**y *momentum terms are known, along with the

bank. *Atmos.Ocean, *30, 4369.

streamline angles, the values of the *s**n *momentum

Forward, R. B., Jr., and Coauthors, 1999: Transport of fish larvae

through a tidal inlet. *Fish. Oceanogr., *8 (Suppl.), 153172.

terms can be computed directly using (A3) and (A4).

Geyer, W. R., 1993: Three-dimensional tidal flow around headlands.

Thus the right-hand sides of (A3)(A4) are actually cal-

culated and the left-hand sides of (A3)(A4) are the

----, and R. P. Signell, 1992: A reassessment of the role of tidal

physical quantities to interpret. This methodology is

dispersion in estuaries and bays. *Estuaries, *15, 97108.

useful because one retains the computational ease of

Gill, A. E., 1982: *AtmosphereOcean Dynamics. *Academic Press,

662 pp.

working in a standard *x**y *coordinate system and with

Hench, J. L., B. O. Blanton, and R. A. Luettich Jr., 2002: Lateral

a simple transform gains the interpretational advantages

dynamic analysis and classification of barotropic tidal inlets.

of the *s**n *coordinate system.

Imasato, N., 1983: What is tide-induced residual current? *J. Phys.*

REFERENCES

----, 1987: Application limit of tide-induced residual current theo-

ry--Criticism of previous studies on a circular tide-induced re-

sidual current. *J. Oceanogr. Soc. Japan, *43, 319331.

Baptista, A. M., E. E. Adams, and K. D. Stolzenbach, 1984: Eulerian-

----, S. Fujio, Q. Zhang, T. Awaji, and K. Akitomo, 1994: Three-

Lagrangian analysis of pollutant transport in shallow water. R.

dimensional numerical experiments on tidal exchange through

M. Parsons Lab. Tech. Rep. 296, Massachusetts Institute of Tech-

a narrow strait in a homogeneous and a stratified sea. *J. Ocean-*

nology, 140 pp.

Bathurst, J. C., C. R. Thorne, and R. D. Hey, 1977: Direct measure-

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