Commerce at Port of Anchorage in 2001 (City of Anchorage Web Site)

Problem Background

Turbulent scale effect in geometrically distorted physical models

Task 2: Small-area idealized flow model of Cook Inlet

Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory Flow Table

Figure 3. Side view of CHL flow table

Figure 5. View of traversing system looking down through glass bottom

Idealized Cook Inlet Models

Figure 6. Area coverage of large-area and small-area idealized models

Large-Area Model Description

Figure 7. Idealized bathymetry in large-area model

Figure 8. Cutting large-area model pieces with router

Large-Area Model Observations

Figure 10. Flood flow in large-area idealized model

Figure 12. Alaska District engineers observe dye patterns in large-area idealized model

Small-Area Model Description

Small-Area Model Observations

Figure 14. Cutting small-area model pieces with router

Figure 16. Idealized bathymetry in small-area model

Figure 17. Small-area idealized model positioning on flow table

Conclusions From Idealized Models

Turbulence Scale Effect in Distored Models

Geometrically Distorted Models

Turbulence Similitude in Geometrically Distorted Models

Turbulence Similitude in Geometrically Distorted Models cont'd - TR-03-60041

Turbulence Similitude in Geometrically Distorted Models cont'd - TR-03-60042

Turbulence Similitude in Geometrically Distorted Models cont'd - TR-03-60043

Turbulence Similitude in Geometrically Distorted Models cont'd - TR-03-60044

Anticipated Scale Effects

Anticipated Scale Effects cont'd

Flow at Bend

Flow at Bend cont'd - TR-03-60048

Flow at Bend cont'd - TR-03-60049

Flow at Bend cont'd - TR-03-60050

Flow at Bend cont'd - TR-03-60051

Turbulence Scale Effect Experiments

Case 4: Flow separation at vertical step - TR-03-60053

Table 4 Distorted Model Froude Scales

Case 1: Flow Separation at Vertical Edge - Free Jet

Experiment setup

Figure 20. Experiment setup for Case 1 free jet flow separation at vertical edge

Table 5 Distortion Experimental Scale Factors and Parameters

Case 1 results

Figure 21. Velocity field NQ = 1.5, prototype (Case 1)

Figure 23. Velocity field NQ = 1.5, distortion = 4 (Case 1)

Figure 25. Comparison between prototype and distortion = 6, NQ = 1.5 (Case 1)

Figure 27. Crossflow velocity ratios, distortion = 2,4,6 over prototype (NQ = 1.5, Case 1)

Case 1 discussion and conclusions

Case 2 results

Case 2 discussion and conclusions

Figure 31. Crossflow velocity ratios, distortion = 2,4,6 over prototype (NQ = 1.0, Case 2)

Case 3: Flow separation at sloping edge

Figure 33. Cross sections showing distortion for sloping edge tests

Figure 35. Velocity field at 2/3 d, NQ =1.0, distortion = 2 (Case 3)

Figure 37. Velocity field at 2/3 d, NQ =1.0, distortion = 6 (Case 3)

Figure 39. Velocity field at 1/3 d, NQ =1.0, distortion = 2 (Case 3)

Figure 41. Velocity field at 1/3 d, NQ =1.0, distortion = 6 (Case 3)

Figure 42. Velocity field at 2/3 d, NQ =1.0, prototype vs. distortion = 6 (Case 3)

Case 3 discussion and conclusions

Figure 44. Crossflow velocity ratios at 2/3 d, distortion = 2,4,6 over prototype (No = 1.0, Case 3)

Figure 46. Crossflow velocity ratios at 1/3 d, distortion = 2,4,6 over prototype (NQ = 1, Case 3)

Case 4: Flow Separation at Vertical Step - TR-03-60078

Table 7 Distortion in Vertical Step Experiment

Figure 49. Comparison of horizontal flow magnitudes in lee of a vertical step

Conclusions from Turbulence Scale Effects Experiments

Impact of Dredging Planform

Figure 50. Experiment setup for harbor dredging planform configuration

Dredge Transition Test Results

Figure 52. Flow leaving dredged region over vertical transition

Figure 54. Flow entering dredged region over vertical transition

Figure 56. Photograph of flow entering dredged region over vertical transition

Figure 57. Photograph of flow entering dredged region over sloping transition

7 3-D Cook Inlet Model

Figure 58. Area coverage of 3-D Cook Inlet model

Table 10 Scale Ratios for 3-D Model

Model fabrication

Figure 60. Router rough-cut of bathymetry

Figure 61. Router finish cut of bathymetry

Figure 63. Portion of 3-D model looking downstream

Model operation

Figure 66. 3-D Cook Inlet model installed for flood flow

3-D Model Observations

Figure 67. Surface flow tracer showing reduced flow at Port of Anchorage during ebb tide

Figure 69. Aerial showing approximate flow separation and entrainment region in lee of Carin Point during ebb tide

Conclusions from Cook Inlet 3-D Model

Conclusions from Cook Inlet 3-D Model cont'd

Summary and Conclusions - TR-03-60103

Task 3: Turbulence scale effect in distorted physical models

Study Conclusions

Turbulence scale effects study conclusions

Turbulence scale effects study conclusions cont'd

References - TR-03-60108

Appendix A Case 1 - Flow Separation at Vertical Edge - Free Jet

Figure A1. Case 1, Q = 1.5 L/sec, prototype

Figure A3. Case 1, Q = 1.5 L/sec, distortion = 4

Figure A5. Case 1, Q = 1.5 L/sec, prototype vs. distortion = 2

Figure A7. Case 1, Q = 1.5 L/sec, prototype vs. distortion = 6

Figure A9. Case 1, Q = 1.5 L/sec, prototype minus distortion = 4

Figure A11. Case 1, Q = 1.5 L/sec, ratios between prototype and distortions 2, 4, and 6

Figure A13. Case 1, Q = 1.0 L/sec, prototype

Figure A15. Case 1, Q = 1.0 L/sec, distortion = 4

Figure A17: Case 1, Q = 1.0 L/sec, prototype vs. distortion = 2

Figure A19. Case 1, Q = 1.0 L/sec, prototype vs. distortion = 6

Figure A21. Case 1, Q = 1.0 L/sec, prototype minus distortion = 4

Figure A23. Case 1, Q = 1.0 L/sec, ratios between prototype and distortions 2, 4, and 6

Figure A25. Case 1, Q = 0.75 L/sec, prototype

Figure A27. Case 1, Q = 0.75 L/sec, distortion = 4

Figure A29. Case 1, Q = 0.75 L/sec, prototype vs. distortion = 2

Figure A31. Case 1, Q = 0.75 L/sec, prototype vs. distortion = 6

Figure A33. Case 1, Q = 0.75 L/sec, prototype minus distortion = 4

Figure A35. Case 1, Q = 0.75 L/sec, ratios between prototype and distortions 2, 4, and 6

Appendix B Case 2 - Flow Separation at Vertical Edge - Constrained Jet

Figure B1. Case 2, Q = 1.5 L/sec, prototype

Figure B3. Case 2, Q = 1.5 L/sec, distortion = 4

Figure B5. Case 2, Q = 1.5 L/sec, prototype vs. distortion = 2

Figure B7. Case 2, Q = 1.5 L/sec, prototype vs. distortion = 6

Figure B9. Case 2, Q = 1.5 L/sec, prototype minus distortion = 4

Figure B11. Case 2, Q = 1.5 L/sec, ratios between prototype and distortions 2, 4, and 6

Figure B13. Case 2, Q = 1.0 L/sec, prototype

Figure B15. Case 2, Q = 1.0 L/sec, distortion = 4

Figure B17. Case 2, Q = 1.0 L/sec, prototype vs. distortion = 2

Figure B19. Case 2, Q = 1.0 L/sec, prototype vs. distortion = 6

Figure B21. Case 2, Q = 1.0 L/sec, prototype minus distortion = 4

Figure B23. Case 2, Q = 1.0 L/sec, ratios between prototype and distortions 2, 4, and 6

Figure B25. Case 2, Q = 0.75 L/sec, prototype

Figure B27. Case 2, Q = 0.75 L/sec, distortion = 4

Figure B29. Case 2, Q = 0.75 L/sec, prototype vs. distortion = 2

Figure B31. Case 2, Q = 0.75 L/sec, prototype vs. distortion = 6

Figure B33. Case 2, Q = 0.75 L/sec, prototype minus distortion = 4

Figure B35. Case 2, Q = 0.75 L/sec, ratios between prototype and distortions 2, 4, and 6

Appendix C Case 3 - Flow Separation at Sloping Edge

Figure C1. Case 3 (1/3 d), Q = 1.5 L/sec, prototype

Figure C3. Case 3 (1/3 d), Q = 1.5 L/sec, distortion = 4

Figure C5. Case 3 (1/3 d), Q = 1.5 L/sec, prototype vs. distortion = 2

Figure C7. Case 3 (1/3 d), Q = 1.5 L/sec, prototype vs. distortion = 6

Figure C9. Case 3 (1/3 d), Q = 1.5 L/sec, prototype minus distortion = 4

Figure C11. Case 3 (1/3 d), Q = 1.5 L/sec, ratios between prototype and distortions 2, 4, and 6

Figure C13. Case 3 (2/3 d), Q = 1.5 L/sec, prototype

Figure C15. Case 3 (2/3 d), Q = 1.5 L/sec, distortion = 4

Figure C17. Case 3 (2/3 d), Q = 1.5 L/sec, prototype vs. distortion = 2

Figure C19. Case 3 (2/3 d), Q = 1.5 L/sec, prototype vs. distortion = 6

Figure C21. Case 3 (2/3 d), Q = 1.5 L/sec, prototype minus distortion = 4

Figure C23. Case 3 (2/3 d), Q = 1.5 L/sec, ratios between prototype and distortions 2, 4, and 6

Figure C25. Case 3 (1/3 d), Q = 1.0 L/sec, prototype

Figure C27. Case 3 (1/3 d), Q = 1.0 L/sec, distortion = 4

Figure C29. Case 3 (1/3 d), Q = 1.0 L/sec, prototype vs. distortion = 2

Figure C31. Case 3 (1/3 d), Q = 1.0 L/sec, prototype vs. distortion = 6

Figure C33. Case 3 (1/3 d), Q = 1.0 L/sec, prototype minus distortion = 4

Figure C35. Case 3 (1/3 d), Q = 1.0 L/sec, ratios between prototype and distortions 2, 4, and 6

Figure C37. Case 3 (2/3 d), Q = 1.0 L/sec, prototype

Figure C39. Case 3 (2/3 d), Q = 1.0 L/sec, distortion = 4

Figure C41. Case 3 (2/3 d), Q = 1.0 L/sec, prototype vs. distortion = 2

Figure C43. Case 3 (2/3 d), Q = 1.0 L/sec, prototype vs. distortion = 6

Figure C45. Case 3 (2/3 d), Q = 1.0 L/sec, prototype minus distortion = 4

Figure C47. Case 3 (2/3 d), Q = 1.0 L/sec, ratios between prototype and distortions 2, 4, and 6

REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE - TR-03-60172

(Concluded) - TR-03-60173

TR-03-6